The Torah’s Revelation Narratives

“The Israelites traveled from Rameses toward Sukkoth. There were about 600,000 adult males on foot…” (Exodus 12:37)

“G-d said to Moses, ‘I will come to you in thick cloud, so that all the people will hear when I speak to you. They will then believe in you forever.’ Moses told G-d the people’s response. G-d said to Moses, “Go to the people, and sanctify them today and tomorrow. let them even immerse their clothing. They will then be ready for the third day, for on the third day, G-d will descend on Mount Sinai in the sight of all the people.” (Exodus 19:9-11)

“The third day arrived. There was thunder and lightning in the morning, with a heavy cloud on the mountain, and an extremely loud blast of a ram’s horn. The people in the camp trembled. Moses led the people out of the camp towards the Divine Presence. They stood transfixed at the foot of the mountain. Mount Sinai was all in smoke because of the Presence that had descended on it. G-d was in the fire, and its smoke went up like the smoke of a lime kiln. The entire mountain trembled violently. There was the sound of a ram’s horn, increasing in volume to a great degree. Moses spoke and G-d replied with a voice. G-d came down on Mount Sinai, to the peak of the mountain. He summoned Moses to the peak, and Moses climbed up.” (Exodus 19:16-20)

“G-d spoke all these words, saying: ‘I am G-d your lord, Who brought you out of Egypt, from the place of slavery. Do not have any other G-ds before Me. (Exodus 20:1-3)

“G-d said to Moses: ‘This is what you must tell the Israelites: You have seen that I spoke to you from heaven…’” (Exodus 20:19)

“To the Israelites, the appearance of G-d’s glory on the mountain top was like a devouring flame. Moses went into the cloud, and climbed to the mountain top.” (Exodus 24: 17)

“Only take heed and watch yourself very carefully, so that you do not forget the things that your eyes saw. Do not let [this memory] leave your hearts, all the days of your lives. Teach your children and children’s children about the day you stood before G-d your lord at Sinai. It was then that G-d said to me, ‘Congregate the people for Me, and I will let them hear My words. This will teach them to be in awe of me as long as they live on earth, and they will also teach their children. You approached and stood at the foot of the mountain. The mountain was burning with a fire reaching the heart of heaven, with darkness, cloud and mist. Then G-d spoke to you out of the fire. You heard the sounds of words, but saw no image; there was only a voice. He announced to you rules and laws, so that you will keep them in the land which you are crossing [the Jordan] to occupy.” (Deuteronomy 4:9-14)

“You might inquire about times long past, going back to the time that G-d created man on earth, [exploring] one end of the heavens to the other. See if anything as great as this has ever happened, or if the like has ever been heard. Has any nation ever heard G-d speaking out of fire, as you have, and still survived?.. You are the ones who have been shown, so that you will know that G-d is the Supreme Being, and there is none besides Him. From the heavens He let you hear His voice admonishing you, and on earth He showed you His great fire, so that you heard His words from the fire.” (Deuteronomy 4:32-35)

“G-d made a covenant with you [at Mount Sinai]... It was not with your ancestors that G-d made this covenant, but with us, we who are still alive today. On the mountain, G-d spoke to you face to face out of the fire.” (Deuteronomy 5:2-4)

G-d spoke these words in a loud voice to your entire assembly from the mountain, out of the fire, cloud and mist… When you heard the voice out of the darkness, with the mountain burning in flames, your tribal leaders and elders approached me. You said, ‘It is true that G-d our lord has showed us His glory and greatness, and we have heard His voice out of the fire. Today we have seen that when G-d speaks to man, he can still survive. But now, why should we die? Why should this great fire consume us? If we hear the voice of G-d our lord any more, we will die!’‘’ (Deuteronomy 5: 19-22)
“G-d gave me the two stone tablets written with G-d’s finger. Upon them were written all the words that G-d declared to you on the mountain out of the fire, on the Day of Assembly.” (Deuteronomy 9: 1 0)

“G-d wrote on the tablets the original script of the Ten Commandments which he declared to you from the mountain out of the fire on the Day of Assembly.” (Deuteronomy 1 0:4)

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